2 Pesos, (2002)
Front: Bartolomé Mitre (1821-1906), author, statesman and military figure. He
was President of Argentina 1862-1868.
Due to his opposition to Juan Manuel de Rosas, he was forced
into exile where worked as a soldier and journalist in Uruguay, Bolivia, Peru,
and Chile. Mitre returned to Argentina after the defeat of Rosas. He was a
leader of the revolt of Buenos Aires against Justo José de Urquiza's federal
system, and was appointed to important posts in the provincial government after
Buenos Aires seceded from the confederation. Urquiza defeated mitre in the civil
war of 1859, and Buenos Aires reentered the Argentine confederation.
In October 1862, Mitre was elected president of the republic, leading to a period
of internal progress and reform.
Mitre was also the founder of La Nación, one of South America's leading
newspapers. On his passing in 1906, he was interred in La Recoleta Cemetery in
Back: Mitre Museum in Buenos Aires
Enlarge: Mitre Museum
5 Pesos, (2002)
Front: José Francisco de San Martín (1778-1850), liberator of Argentina, Chile and Peru
San Martín was born in Argentina, then a Spanish colony. His father was a Spanish
official. He was educated at the military academy in Madrid, commissioned as a
Second Lieutenant in 1793, and rose to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel in 1808.
He fought with the Spanish army against Portugal, in the African colonies, and
against the invasion by Napoleon I's forces. In 1812 he resigned from the
Spanish army and sailed home to Argentina, where he offered his services to the
San Martín led the rebels against the Spanish forces under General José Zavala
at the Battle of San Lorenzo on 3 February 1813, which became the first victory
of the Argentine War of Independence. He was given the rank of General by the
revolutionary government. The following year he took command of the northern
army preparing a new invasion of Upper Perú (now Bolivia), a command he
resigned to become governor of the province of Cuyo (now the provinces of
Mendoza, San Juan, and San Luis), from where he crossed the Andes and attacked
the Royalists in Chile at the beginning of 1817. With Bernardo O'Higgins, he
made a triumphant entry into the liberated city of Santiago de Chile on 17
Next, San Martín turned his attention to the Spanish stronghold of Peru. For
more than two years he prepared an invasion by sea. After months of slow
advances, he won a decisive victory at the Battle of Pisco on 6 December 1820.
San Martín occupied Lima, the capital of Peru, on 9 July 1821. This was a huge
loss for the Spanish forces. On 28 July he was voted the "Protector" of the
newly independent nation. San Martín finally declared independence from Spain
for Peru on 9 December 1824. After Peru's parliament had been assembled, he
resigned his command.
In 1824, after the death of his wife, Remedios de Escalada, he moved to France
with his daughter Mercedes, where he spent the remainder of his days retired at
Boulogne-sur-Mer. In 1880 his remains were taken to Buenos Aires and reinterred
in the Buenos Aires Cathedral.
Back: Cerro de la Gloria (Hill of Glory) in Mendoza
Atop the Hill of Glory is a bronze monument of fourteen tons that pays tribute to the Army of the Andes for its successful campaign of liberation.
Glory of Mendoza Monument
10 Pesos, (1998-2003)
Front: Manuel Belgrano (1770-1820), lawyer, politician, and military leader.
Belgrano was appointed general by the first autonomous government of Argentina.
In 1812, he created the national flag of Argentina. It was raised for the first
time on February 27 of that year, in an island in the Paraná River, right
opposite the city of Rosario. He also led the Jujuy Exodus, which prepared the
ground for victories of the Argentine War of Independence in the northwest of
Belgrano was one of the leaders of the Argentine Declaration of Independence.
He proposed that Argentina should have a constitutional monarchy led by an Inca
descendent, but this idea did not gain support.
Belgrano's health suffered greatly during his multiple expeditions and campaigns,
held in generally bad conditions. At the age of 50 he died of dropsy, very poor
and practically forgotten by the national government that he had served.
Back: National Flag Monument in Rosario
The National Flag Memorial (Monumento Nacional a la Bandera) is a monumental complex built in 1957, on the anniversary of the death of Manuel Belgrano,
creator of the Argentine flag, who raised it for the first time in an island on the opposite shore of the river on February 27, 1812.
Enlarge: Flag Monument
20 Pesos, (2002)
Front: Juan Manuel de Rosas (1793-1877), governor of Buenos Aires province
1829-1832 and 1835-1852
Rosas began his career as a cattle ranger. He built his fortune through
large-scale ranching. As a full-fledged caudillo (warlord), he began his
political career in 1820 by leading a force of gauchos (cowboys) in support of
the conservatives and federalism. He became governor of Buenos
Aires in 1829 with dictatorial powers. He surrendered office in 1832, and went
on to wage a successful expedition against the indigenous peoples. In 1835,
Rosas again became governor, and extended his power throughout most of Argentina.
He was a ruthless tyrant, and he instituted a regime of terror against his
opponents. He was overthrown in 1852 and fled to England.
Back: The Battle of Vuelta de Obligado
The naval Battle of Vuelta de Obligado took place on the waters of the Paraná River on November 20, 1845, between the Argentine Confederation, under the leadership of
Juan Manuel de Rosas, and an Anglo-French fleet.
The Battle of Vuelta de Obligado
Painting by Manuel Larravide (1871-1910)
100 Pesos, (2012)
Commemorates 60th Anniversary of Eva "Evita" Peron's Death
Front: Eva Duarte de Perón (1919-1952), First Lady of Argentina 1946-1952
Back: The "Tellus" Panel of the Ara Pacis Agustae Altar in Rome, Italy
The Ara Pacis Augustae is an altar to Peace, the Roman goddess. The monument was commissioned by the Roman Senate on 4 July 13 B.C. to honor the return of Augustus
to Rome after his three years in Hispania and Gaul, and consecrated on 30 January 9 BC by the Senate in celebration of the peace brought to the Roman Empire by Augustus'
Scans courtesy arg_collecibles
Ara Pacis Agustae Altar
Enlarge: Ara Pacis Agustae Altar
Ara Pacis: the Tellus Panel
Enlarge: The Tellus Panel
<< Previous | 1 | 2
Back to South America
Argentina is located in southern South America. Spanish navigator Juan de Solis
discovered it in 1516. A permanent Spanish colony was established at Buenos
Aires in 1580, but the colony developed slowly. When Napoleon conquered Spain,
the settlers set up their own government in the name of the Spanish king in
1810. Argentina formally declared independence in 1816. For a more detailed
country profile, see CIA World Factbook on Argentina.