Papal States was an independent territory under the temporal
rule of the popes from 754 to 1870. The territory varied in size
at different times; in 1859 it included 16,000 square miles
extending north-south on the Italian Peninsula, from the Adriatic
Sea and the lower course of the Po River to the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Vatican City, a walled enclave of about 100 acres within the city
of Rome, is recognized as an independent state since 1929. For a more detailed
country profile, see CIA World Factbook on Holy See (Vatican City).
Italian States, consisted of a number of independent states
and kingdoms including the Papal States, ruled Italy from the
fall of Roman Empire to 1870's when they were unified under the
Kingdom of Italy and Victor Emanuele was installed as king.